Glossary

Achene: Dry fruits that contain one seed that is attached to the wall of the ripened fruit.

Adventitious: Formed accidentally or in an unusual anatomical position

Aril (also Arillus): The exterior covering or appendage of some seeds.

Awn: A stiff bristle growing from the ear or flower of many grasses.

Axil: The upper angle between one part of a plant and another, for instance, the stem and a leaf.

Cordate: Heart-shaped

Dehisce: To discharge contents by splitting along a natural line.

Digitate: Shaped like a spread hand.

Dimorphic: Occurring in two distinct forms.

Dioecious: Species that have the male and female reproductive structures on separate plants.

Domatia: Structures produced by plants for symbiotic arthropods to use.

Drupe: a drupe (or stone fruit) is a fruit in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a shell of hardened shell with a seed or kernel inside.

Glabrous: Free from hair or down.

Inflorescence: A group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.

Lanceolate: Shaped like a lance head; of a narrow oval shape tapering to a point at each end.

Lenticel: The body of cells in the stem of a woody plant appearing as a lens-shaped spot, and serving as a pore.

Monoecious: Having both the male and female reproductive organs in the same individual.

Palmate: Having three or more veins, leaflets, or lobes radiating from one point

Pedicel: A stem that attaches single flowers to the main stem of the inflorescence.

Peltate: Shaped like a shield. Having the stalk attached near the centre of the leaf rather than at the margin.

Petiole: The stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem. In some plants, the petioles become flattened and widened, and the true leaves may become reduced or vanish altogether. These are known as phyllodes.

Pinnate: Mainly pertaining to ferns, an arrangement of leaflets arising at multiple points along a common axis. The leaflets are called pinnae (singular: pinna). Bipinnate refers to leaves divided into leaflets that are themselves subdivided; that is, doubly pinnate.

Rachis: The main stem of a compound leaf.

Raceme: A flower cluster with the separate flowers attached by short equal stalks at equal distances along a central stem.

Sepal: Usually green, the sepals provide protection to the developing flower bud, and sometimes support after opening. Collectively the sepals are called the calyx (plural: calyces).

Stipel: One of a pair of lateral appendages, often leaflike, at the base of a leaf petiole in many plants.

Stolon: A creeping horizontal plant stem or runner that takes root at points along its length to form new plants.

Synonym: In botanical nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that now goes by a different scientific name.